As time approaches to learn Ph.D. admissions decisions, you may need to make a contingency plans based on the possibility that you won’t get accepted to any of the programs you applied to. Unfortunately it is a real possibility that the competition is too high for your credentials. Remember that there are probably several strengths in your application but other candidates also can present similar quality strengths and stronger GRE scores as well. The main contingency plan would be to apply to PhD programs again in the following year, though some people decide not to pursue the degree at all.
Are PhD programs likely to admit an applicant they rejected the year before?
You should contact each program you applied to and have an honest discussion (if possible) about potential application improvements. Whether it means retaking the GRE, or even retaking graduate courses you might have low grades in. Consider reapplying to the same programs based on whether they encourage a reapplication, and also plan to apply to programs in the first round next year if you missed that chance this year.
When schools are asked for feedback, many will resist saying exactly why an application was not accepted. If the question is phrased more for “general feedback” or “what areas” were weaker, they will sometimes reveal very useful information. Ask about their policy for reapplications in the next year and whether they encourage it or not. It is ok then to ask for their recommendation to you, personally.
If they encourage you, then take that as genuine and plan to reapply with more competitive qualifications. If they say not to reapply, sound unconvincing in their recommendations, or hedge their response to your question, then consider that a strong sign that a reapplication is not welcomed. A certain amount of gut feeling is needed in this situation. If you feel like they are saying no, then they probably are saying no (regardless of the actual wording they use).
Reapplications hinge on fixing the weaknesses. Improving the GRE and eliminating weak graduate courses with an A or A- will be important. Do everything you can to make those things happen if you really want to pursue a PhD and perhaps you will be able to pursue one after all.